NIST Publication

NIST – FIPS 140-2 (Approval of Cryptographic Modules)

FIPS stands for Federal Information Processing Standard.

FIPS 140-2 is IT security approval program for cryptographic modules produced by private sector vendors for use in govt and regulated industries that collect, store, share sensitive but unclassified information.

Four Security Levels

  • Level 1 : Lowest level of security. Use of one approved algorithm or function. Use of production grade component
  • Level 2 : Improvement on L1 by requiring features to show evidence of tampering to attain physical access to cryptographic keys and Critical Security Parameters (CSP) within module.
  • Level 3 : L3 attempts to prevent access to CSPs. Physical security may include use of strong enclosures and tamper-detection/response circuitry that zeroes all plaintext CSPs when removable doors of module are opened.
  • Level 4 : Immediate deletion of plaintext CSPs on penetration of cryptographic module enclosure. Useful for operation in physically unprotected environments.

 

Security requirements areas for secure design and implementation of cryptographic modules:

  1. Cryptographic Module Specification
  2. Cryptographic Module Ports and Interfaces
  3. Roles, Services and Authentication
  4. Finite State Model
  5. Physical Security
  6. Operational Environment
  7. Cryptographic Key Management
  8. Electromagnetic Interference or Compatibility
  9. Self Tests
  10. Design Assurance
  11. Mitigation of other attacks

 

Annex A – Approved Security Function

Symmetric Key Encryption and Decryption (AES, TDEA)

  1. AES
    • NIST AES
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation, Methods and Techniques
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: 3 variant of ciphertext stealing for CBC mode
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: CMM mode for auth and confidentiality
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: XTS-AES mode for confidentiality on storage
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Methods for Key wrapping
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Methods for format preserving encryption
  2. Triple DES Encryption Algorithm
    • NIST Recommendation for TDEA Block Cipher
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation, Methods and Techniques, Appendix-E
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Methods for key wrapping

Digital Signatures (DSA, RSA and ECDSA)

  • NIST DSS 186-4

Secure Hash Standard (SHS)

  1. Secure Hash Standard (SHA-1, SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512)
    • NIST SHS 180-4

SHA-3 Standard

  1. SHA-3 Hash Algorithm (SHA30224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, SHA3-512)
    • NIST SHA3-Standard, 202
  2. SHA-3 Extendable-Output Functions (XOF) (SHAKE128, SHALE256)
    • NIST SHA3-Standard, 202

Message Authentication (Triple-DES, AES and HMAC)

  1. Triple-DES
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: CMAC mode for authentication, 800-38B
  2. AES
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: CMAC mode for authentication, 800-38B
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: CMM mode for auth and confidentiality 800-38C
    • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC, 800-38D
  3. HMAC
    • NIST The Keyed Hash Message Authentication Code, 198-1
    • NIST Recommendation for Applications using Approved Hash algorithm, 800-107 Rv.1, Section-5.3

Annex B – Approved Protection Profiles

  1. NIAP Approved Protection Profile for OS
  2. NIAP Approved Protection Profile for Mobile Device Fundamentals

Software modules can only be validated up to security level 2

Annex C – Approved Random Number Generators

Transitions

  • NIST Recommendation for Transitioning the Use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Length

Deterministic RNG produces sequence of bits from initial value called seed

  • NIST Recommendation for Random Number Generation using Deterministic Random Bit Generators, 800-90A

Non Deterministic RNG produces output dependent on some unpredictable physical source outside of human control.

  • No FIPS approved

 

Annex D – Approved Key Establishment Techniques

  • FIPS 140-2 Implementation Guidance, Section D.2
  • NIST DSS: For key Establishment DSS is only used to define domain parameters & key pair generation
  • NIST Recommendation for pair-wise key establishment schemes using Discrete Logarithm cryptographically, 800-56A
  • NIST Recommendation for pair-wise key establishment schemes using Integer Factorization cryptographically
  • NIST Recommendation for Key Derivation Using Pseudorandom Functions
  • NIST Recommendation for password-based key derivation, Part 1 : Storage Apps, 800-132
  • NIST Recommendation for existing App-specific key derivation functions, 800-135rev1
  • NIST Recommendation for key derivation through extraction then expansion
  • NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Methods for key wrapping
  • NIST Recommendation for cryptgraphic key generation, 800-133
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